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Certain specific proteins such as the estrogen receptor are also expressed in other types of female tissue types, such as the cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries and breast.Thin endometrium may be defined as an endometrial thickness of less than 8 mm. Treatments that can improve endometrial thickness include Vitamin E, L-arginine and sildenafil citrate.Various factors including the seasons, climate, and stress can affect its development.The endometrium itself produces certain hormones at different stages of the cycle and this affects other parts of the reproductive system.In case of implantation, however, the endometrial lining is neither absorbed nor shed. The decidua becomes part of the placenta; it provides support and protection for the gestation.If there is inadequate stimulation of the lining, due to lack of hormones, the endometrium remains thin and inactive.During the menstrual cycle or estrous cycle, the endometrium grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer.This represents an optimal environment for the implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the uterus.
Other proteins such as the HOX11 protein that is required for female fertility, is expressed in endometrial stroma cells throughout the menstrual cycle.Just over 100 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the endometrium with only a handful genes being highly endometrium specific.The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and stromal cells of the endometrial mucosa.The endometrium is central, echogenic (detectable using ultrasound scanners), and has an average thickness of 6.7 mm.The endometrial lining undergoes cyclic regeneration. Humans and great apes display the menstrual cycle, whereas most other mammals are subject to an estrous cycle.In humans, this will result in amenorrhea, or the absence of a menstrual period.After menopause, the lining is often described as being atrophic.In humans, the cycle of building and shedding the endometrial lining lasts an average of 28 days.The endometrium develops at different rates in different mammals.The endometrium consists of a single layer of columnar epithelium plus the stroma on which it rests.The stroma is a layer of connective tissue that varies in thickness according to hormonal influences.