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curve up the western edge of Europe and define the physical landscape of Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark), Finland, Iceland, Scotland, Ireland, the Brittany region of France, Spain, Portugal … Its main peninsulas are the Iberian, Italian, Crimean and Balkan, located in southern Europe, and the Scandinavian and Jutland, located in northern Europe. Europe can be divided into four major physical regions, running from north to south: Western Uplands, North European Plain, Central Uplands and Alpine Mountains. western uplands: geologically older, lower, more stable than Alpines … north European lowlands: lengthy arc (aka Great European Plain) of rivers and waterways, most densely populated region of Europe, agriculture, industries … defined by hard and ancient rock shaped by glaciation, abundant marshlands, lakes, fjords b.
extend from the southern UK east to Russia and includes parts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Belarus …Even after the split, ethnic differences still cause fighting and conflict. political system: commitment to democracy where the leaders rule only with the consent of the population b.These ethnic groups have followed a policy of ethnic cleansing (expelling or killing an entire ethnic group), leading to thousands of deaths and refugees. legal system: Napoleonic Code derived from Roman Law c.While today’s problem for developing countries is the high level of poverty due to high fertility, tomorrow’s problem will be avoiding a decline in living standards in countries with aging populations and declining workforces.Northern Europe, France and the UK have in varying degrees tried to avoid it with programs such as job protection and generous leave for pregnant and nursing mothers, government funding of nursery schools, direct child support payments and other measures to reduce the economic opportunity costs of childbearing.Some, like Switzerland, have multiple languages spoken (French, German, Italian, Romansch). Multiculturalism can be a source of tension: Multi-ethnic rivalries (Albanians, Bosnians, Croats, Serbs) within the former country of Yugoslavia have caused bitter conflict.This area is often called a shatter-belt because the once communist country split into five separate countries.Some countries have only one major ethnic group, such as Sweden (share common language, culture, religious heritage).Some, like Belgium, have two major ethnic groups - the Flemings and the Walloons - share a common religion, but do not speak the same language.Political Revolution: Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 (key step in evolution of state system) ended decades of war, French Revolution, Revolutions of 1848, rise of socialist thinking 6. resulted from migration and cultural diffusion (the spreading of culture) …more than 160 ethnic groups, over 60 languages spoken b.